Panel of the Archives of IFPS, XV International Forum,
Santiago de Chile, October 16, 2008.
Sonia Gojman de Millán, Secretary General of the IFPS
with the collaboration of:
Salvador Millán SEMSOAC,
Edson Lannes CPRJ,
Javert Rodrigues CPMG, Eliana Mendes CPMG,
Edith Frank Rieser OAP,
Ana Maria Rudge SPID, Angela Coutinho SPID, Edelyn Schweidson SPID
Patricia Gonzalez, SEMSOAC.
Presented at the Panel of the Archives of the IFPS,
at the XV International Forum of IFPS in Santiago de Chile on October 16, 2008.
Paper published in Fromm Forum 13, 2009 of the International Erich Fromm Society.
The Sociedad Psicoanalítica Mexicana A.C., under Erich Fromm’s guidance and representation, played a central role in the creation of the International Federation of Psychoanalytic Societies (IFPS). IFPS was founded on July 30 1962, “according to the constitutional documents signed in Amsterdam by Werner Schwidder and Franz Heigl (representing the Deutsche Psychoanalytische Gessellshaft), Erich Fromm and Jorge Silva (representing the Mexican Psychoanalytic Society) and Igor Caruso and Raoul Schindler (representing the Wiener Arbeitskreis für Tiefen Psychologie)” (Funk 2007).
IFPS was meant to promote the creation of a non-bureaucratic psychoanalytic association of all psychoanalysts, independent of their beliefs.
Werner Schwidder, who succeeded Boehm as head of the German Psychoanalytic Society (DPG), wished to overcome the post-World War II isolation of the DPG (Chrzanowski 1993). He sought to establish international contacts, after the schism in German society that determined the split between DPG and the Deutsche Psychoanalytische Vereinigung , whereby DPV ended its affiliation with the International Psychoanalytic Association. Erich Fromm, also cofounder of the William Alanson White Institute in New York (Chrzanowski 1993), encouraged Schwidder to establish contact with the William Allanson White Society.
Igor Caruso, founder of the Viennese Circle for Depth Psychology, during the late 1960s played a central role in founding and supporting the formation of psychoanalysts of several groups in Brazil, as we will see below.
An initial open international psychoanalytic meeting took place in Amsterdam in the summer of 1960, followed by a second meeting in Düsseldorf in 1961. A year later, the First International Forum of Psychoanalysis was held in Amsterdam, on the subject of “Present-Day Trends in Psychoanalytic Theory and Practice.” A number of prominent analysts had agreed to participate at the Forum, among them Franz Alexander, Herbert Binswanger, Médard Boss, Igor Caruso, Erich Fromm, Marin Grotjahn, René Laforgué, Jack Millet, Sándor Rádo, Schindler, René Spitz, Edith Weigert and Marianne Eckhardt. On this occasion, a new “Arbeitsgemeinschaft” for promoting a free discussion of psychoanalytic theory and practice, later named IFPS, was founded ats a meeting between Igor Caruso, Erich Fromm, Werner Schwidder, and Gerard Chrzanowski. Sándor Rádo, who represented the American Academy of Psychoanalysis and its only medical psychoanalysts,, withdrew from participation in the organization of the federation.
IFPS was created according to the IFPS Bylaws in Amsterdam on July 30, 1962, by the Deutsche Psychoanalytische Gesellschaft (DPG), the Sociedad Psicoanalitica Mexicana A.C. (SPMAC), the Wiener Arbeitskreis fur Tiefenpsychologie(WAFT) and the William Alanson White Psychoanalytic Society (WAWPS). IFPS sought to achieve an open, plural spirit, not constrained to any single psychoanalytic theory, such that one of its main aims was to “avoid the bureaucratization of its theory” (See A Millán, 1965). It was clearly intended to be independent of the International Psychoanalytic Association (IPA) headquartered in London, from which Fromm and other prominent psychoanalysts had been eliminated (Funk 1998).
IFPS did not intend to turn its back on the statements of early psychoanalysis (Funk 2007); instead, IFPS sought to use them as a basis for proposing and developing the theory of psychoanalysis. These same aims and origins served as inspiration for each of the Latin American societies that would gain affiliation to IFPS over the years.
These societies all have in common the precedent of having had an initial contact and final rupture with IPA colleagues or societies, in order to pursue the “free discussion” of psychoanalytic theory and therapy, unconstrained by any single theory or the bureaucratization of its practices. In the following survey, we shall see that the societies also share an evolutionary process whereby each has encountered conflicts, debates and obstacles.that nevertheless have served to strengthen the development and individuation of each group’s identity in the face of current trends toward globalization.
Latin American IFPS Societies
Today, IFPS counts as members, six affiliated societies from Mexico, Brazil and Chile; and one study group from Argentina.
From 1934, some prominent Mexican psychiatrists (e.g. Davila, GonzalezE. and Millán), all professors at the Medical School of the National Mexican Autonomous University (UNAM), were interested in and lectured on Freudian thought. Led by Gonzalez E. through 1937, they organized a permanent seminar for discussing Freud’s papers. They were particularly interested in the potential applications of psychoanalytic thought upon socio-cultural phenomena within Mexico (Millán A.1965).
In 1949, they learned about Fromm’s fortuitous visit to Mexico (Derbez J, 1980) and determined to establish contact with him. In fact, this encounter would initiate Fromm’s subsequent professional visits to Mexico to lecture. These visits later developed into a working relationship that would last for over 25 years (Millán S and Gojman de Millán S. 2000).
By the end of 1950, Fromm came to live in Mexico and founded a training program for psychoanalysts at UNAM, where he was designated Emeritus Professor. He led the training, supervision and teaching of the first classes with the support of visiting psychoanalysts, including Rose Spiegel, Clara Thompson, Nathan W. Ackerman, Michael Balint, O. Spurgeon English, Roy Grinker, Edward S. Tauber; and lecturers from related fields, such as D.T. Suzuki, and Paul Tillich (Derbez 1982). The inaugural training program also benefited from the participation of renowned Mexican professors, among them anthropologist Angel Palerm, philosopher Ramon Xirau and neuroscientist Raul Hernandez Peon; as well as collaborating lecturers Ivan Illich, Paulo Freire, and Julio Boltvinic. Later graduates of the training program would include Michael Maccoby, researcher and graduate at Harvard University, as well as Guillermo Davila, Jorge Silva, Alfonso Millán, Fernando Narvaez, Mario A. Reyes, Eduardo Zajur, Aniceto Aramoni, Armando Hinojosa, Jorge Derbez, and Victor Saavedra.
Fromm continued to actively participate in the training of Mexican psychoanalysts, inviting prominent visitors from diverse countries and orientations throughout his tenure in Mexico until 1973.. The University’s academic support continued until the late 80s.
Apart from the core texts on psychoanalysis, the training also comprised an enriching theoretical orientation on sociological, economical and a critical philosophic focus that was then a novelty. It was a precursor of what is today called Freudo-Marxism (Saavedra V 1980).
Meanwhile, around 1947, several Mexican medical doctors had gone abroad to Argentina, the U.S. or France to be trained as psychoanalysts. Upon their return around 1955, they found the established training program at UNAM. However, the two groups of psychoanalysts , those trained at UNAM and those trained abroad, were unable to bridge their differences and form one singular Mexican Psychoanalytic Association. Some of the psychoanalysts who had trained abroad became members of the Argentinean Psychoanalytic Society that was affiliated with IPA. This group would later found the corresponding IPA Asociación Psicoanalitica Mexicana.
Meanwhile, in 1956, the first graduating classes of psychoanalysts from UNAM’s training program founded, along with Fromm, the Sociedad Psicoanalítica Mexicana A.C. Fromm would later represent the SPMAC at the founding of the IFPS in 1962.
In August 1969, the SPMAC hosted the Third International Forum of Psychoanalysis in Mexico City. The main themes of the conference included, “Indications and success of psychoanalysis”, “The Interpretation of Dreams and Technique” and “New Contributions of Psychoanalysis.”
Due to Fromm’s poor health,, Ramon de la Fuente was nominated instead as the President of the Third Forum. The vicepresidents were Werner Schwidder and Gerard Chrzanowski; and the Organizing Committee was headed by Jorge Silva Garcia.
Jorge Silva García served as a delegate of the SPMAC for many years, and was elected as a member of the Executive Committee in1969. In 1975, he resigned from both the SPMAC and the Instituto Mexicano de Psicoanalisis A.C. (IMPAC) that had been established in 1963 for facilitating the financial and administrative affairs of the analytical training (Derbez 1982).
Among other issues, Silva faced a profound opposition from some of the Institute’s prominent leaders to the international exchange of the Mexican psychoanalysts. In fact, these colleagues had decided to suspend the payment of dues to IFPS, resulting in SPMAC losing its membership to IFPS in 1975. By then, the group of newly trained psychoanalysts became active members of SPMAC, and their participation also raised some conflicts and rivalries with the senior professionals who led the Institute’s training program. These conflicts led to the virtual demise of SPMAC in 1982.
Gojman and Millán, both of whom were members of the Faculty at IMPAC working as Didactic and Supervisory analysts, led their group of newly trained analysts in developing social and participative action research projects based on psychoanalytic principles. This group had also begun to establish an intense dialogue and exchange with several professional organizations, such as the Centro de Estudios y Aplicación del Psicoanalisis CEAP (1991), the International Erich Fromm society (1992), Therapeia (1995), as well as with colleagues from professional meetings, among them Michael Maccoby from Harvard University and the International Social Character network; Rainer Funk and the Social Character study group of the International Erich Fromm Society; Mauricio Cortina of the Washington School of Psychiatry who organized the Erich Fromm International Symposium (Cortina and Maccoby 1996); Paul Roazen of the York University; Paul Lippmann from the William Alanson White Institute; David and Jill Scharf of the Institute of Relational Psychoanalysis; Neil McLaughlin from the Department of Sociology of the Mac Master Mac Master University and John Rickert, a Fulbright Fellow.
In spite of the critical resistance among some of the colleagues at IMPAC which continued to the early 90s, the Instute’s director Mario A Reyes asked Sonia Gojman, the vice-director, to inquire about the possibility of establishing contact with IFPS. Sonia Gojman developed the project during 1992 and the application procedure was followed. Site visits to assess the clinical practice were conducted by Jochen Kemper and Marja Lidqvist. At that time, the clinical cases were presented for discussion by advanced candidates-in-training Barroso, Bustamnante, Morales and Sanchez, who were active in the sociopsychoanalytic research group called the Seminario de Sociopsicoanalisis. IMPAC was accepted as a full member of IFPS in 1994 in Florence, Italy. Thereafter, Gojman represented IMPAC at AD meetings,from 1994 to 2003; she was elected EC member 1996 to 2003 and Secretary General of IFPS from 2000 to 2003.
Since 1987, various difficulties contributed to the gradual independence of the planning and conduct of the socio-psychoanalytic research group’s activities. As a result, the Seminario de Sociopsicoanalisis decided to establish a place of its own, started a psychoanalytic clinic and later on founded a training program for analysts with a special attention to the social psychological context of clinical practice.
In 1996 the Seminario de Sociopsicoanalisis A.C. gained formal legal status, and thereby received official recognition by the Mexican Authorities as well as by the Mexican Council for Science and Technology (CONACYT), wherein it is listed as an Research Center of Excellence. In 1996 the Seminario was awarded the International Erich Fromm Prize for its socio psychoanalytic focus in community participative action research.
In 1999, SEMSOAC became an IFPS study group. In 2004 in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, the Seminario applied for a change of status and became a full member of IFPS.
SEMSOAC continues its mission to raise awareness of sociopsychoanalysis, as a tool for fostering social change. This is the main purpose of SEMSOAC’S numerous participative-action studies and interdisciplinary exchanges. These projects have taken the psychoanalytic view as central to the understanding of social phenomena and the social frame of reference as central to the understanding and conduct of clinical psychoanalytic interventions.
The participation of renowned scientists such as Alan and June Sroufe of the University of Minnessota; Mary Main and Erik Hesse of the University of California in Berkeley with respect to Bowlby’s Attachment Theory; Maria Eugenia Sanchez and Eduardo Almeida of Prade with respect to meaningful participative action research projects; have served as constant stimuli for the intellectual development of socially oriented psychoanalytic projects and scientifically informed community participation activities aimed at promoting the emotional development of children from indigenous nahuatl and other high-risk populations.
Sonia Gojman has served as SEMSOAC’s delegate at IFPS AD meetings in the EC since 2004. She was elected to a second term as Secretary General of IFPS, for 2004-2008.
Iracy Doyle was a brilliant psychiatrist from Brazil who first moved to NY in 1946 to receive training as a psychoanalyst at the William Alanson White Institute, whereshe was analyzed by Meyer Maskin and supervised by Clara Thompson. She began training analysts in Brazil at the Instituto de Medicina Psicológica in Rio de Janeiro. The first class was being trained in 1956 when Doyle prematurely passed away and the psychoanalytic training had to be suspended. Horus Vital Brazil, who had been in analysis withIracy Doyle and one of the most prominent participants in her group that group, decided to go to NY himself and also receive training at the WAWI. There, he was analyzed by Clara Thompson and supervised by Gerard Chrzanowski. Back in Rio de Janeiro, the group was reorganized under the name of Sociedade de Psicanalise Iracy Doyle and it reinitiated the training of psychoanalysts. In 1969, the Sociedade became affiliated with the IFPS in Mexico City. Horus Vital Brazil was elected as an Executive Committee member in 1975 and continued to participate therein until 1984. A meeting of the EC was held in Rio de Janeiro in 1981.
In October 1989, the Eighth IFPS Forum was hosted by Sociedade de Psicanalise Iracy Doyle in Rio de Janeiro. Horus Vital Brazil served as President of the Forum.counted with The Circulo Psicanalitico do Rio de Janeiro (Lannes, personal communication) shared with him and actively collaborated with the organization of it. It was a “highly successful forum [forum] in terms of the number of registrations, the representation of psychoanalytic societies and the high quality scientific contributions (Horus Vital Brazil, IFPS AD meeting minutes,1989). The Forum attracted “more than 1000 participants and was one of the largest psychoanalytic conferences ever held in Brazil” (Liana Brazil IFP).
In 1963, Malomar Lund Edelweis, who had been analyzed by Caruso, along with a group of psychiatrist and psychologist colleagues, founded the Circulo Psicanalitico de Minas Gerais. In 1968, Caruso himself was invited and remained in Belo Horizonte for one year and a half to participate with this group in the analysis, training and supervision of candidates (Pimenta 2002, Rodrigues 2008, Lannes 2008).
In 1969, Caruso accompanied several members of the Circulo to the Third International Forum of Psychoanalysis in Mexico.
According to Rodrigues, Silva Garcia mentioned to them that the procedures for affiliation had to be followed and, in spite of their disappointment with the refusal of their intentions, they continued to be in contact with Werner Schwidder, who advised them on the corresponding steps required in the formal procedure. In 1971, Werner Schwidder presented their application to the IFPS’ AD in Madrid, and the group was formally accepted under the name of Circulo Brasileiro de Psicanalise, which comprised several branches of colleagues from diverse provinces. Because of a split or reorganization among the groups and because some of the subgroups would discontinue their affiliation with the IFPS, the remaining groups since 1999 maintain their membership under the umbrella name of Circulo Psicanalitico de Minas Gerais. The Circulo is comprised of the four groups, Circulo Psicanalitico de Minas Gerais, Circulo Psicanalitico da Bahia, Circulo Psicanalitico do Sergipe and Circulo Psicanalitico do Rio Grande do Sul.
The original theoretical orientation was based on the writings of Caruso, Freud and some Post-Freudians such as Melanie Klein, Winnicott, Greenson, Laplanche and more recently, Lacan (Pimenta 2002, Rodrigues 2008).
Javert Rodrigues, Delegate of CPMG was elected as an Executive Committee member in 1994 and has continued to participate therein.
The Thirteenth IFPS International Forum of Psychoanalysis was successfully held in August 2004, in Belo Horizonte, Brazil headed by Javert Rodrigues. The central theme was, “The multiple Faces of Perversion?”. The Forum was attended by 600 participants from 13 countries: Brazil, USA, México, Spain, Italy, Norway, Germany, Argentina, Finland, Sweden, Switzerland, Chile and Russia. The colleagues from Brazil came from 13 regions: Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Paraná, Bahia, Brasília, Rio Grande Do Sul, Pará, Sergipe, Rio Grande Do Norte, Espíritu Santo, Tocantes and Pernambuco. 140 scientific papers were presented by members of IFPS societies. The presentations showed diverse theoretical foundations, cultures, points of view and understandings. The discussions after the presentations confirmed the general interest for building bridges that benefit the development of the psychoanalytic knowledge, sustaining the spirit and central aim of the IFPS to facilitate the open exchange of viewpoints on science, and promoting personal contact and professional relationships among colleagues from the member societies.
Malomar Lund Edelweiss, who had initiated the Circulo Psicanalitico de Minas Gerais, also wanted the Circulo Brasileiro de Psicoanalisis–affiliated to the Austrian Circle of Deep Psychology and founded by Caruso–would have a representative in in Rio de Janeiro. He contacted Katrin Kemper, who remained in Brazil in 1968, after her husband Werner Kemper’s return to Berlin in 1967. She resigned from the Sociedade Psicanalitica do Rio de Janeiro, an IPA society that she had helped to found and in which she was then a Didactic Analyst.
Along with Malomar and Caruso, Kemper founded the Circulo Psicanalitico do Rio de Janeiro, in the interest of fewer constraints by the rigid institutional rules of IPA. After a schism, the Circulo Psicanalitico do Rio de Janeiro separated from the Circulo Brasileiro de Psicoanalisis and individually applied and was accepted as a full member of IFPS in 1980 in Helsinki.
Edson Lannes was elected as an EC member in 1983 and continued in that position until 1992. He has participated also an auditor of the IFPS until the present day.
Until 1989 there was only one Institute in Chile dedicated to the formation of psychoanalysts, namely the Institute of Psychoanalysis of the Chilean Psychoanalytic Association, with ties to IPA. In 1989, after a series of processes and reflection, a group of psychotherapists with the participation of Jaime Coloma, an IPA analyst, founded the Chilean Institute of Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy (ICHPA) and later the Chilean Society of Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy was formed.
The original intention was to make a psychoanalytic formation available to a wider sector of professionals and to provide structure for an area of psychoanalytic psychotherapy that previously did not exist in Chile.
ICHPA has intended through the development of its activities “towards a permanent search with regards to the question of how to form an institute where not only psychoanalysis is discussed, but where psychoanalysis itself is allowed to speak”
(ICHPA 2000). Psychoanalysis is meant to act in the social realm as a force for change. “A Psychoanalysis with ties to the Freudian critical tradition which gives evidence to the existence of contradictions and its place in society, entails taking a stand for the human being, questioning the reality of What it thinks, exhibiting its active forces, its conflicts and its falsities, not aimed only to the discovery of the phenomena, but also their transformation (ICHPA 2000)
ICHPA’s formation of psychotherapists has been recognized as a valid clinical specialization by the National Commission for Accreditation of Psychologists and Clinical Psychologists. It provides a clinic offering psychoanalytic attention to persons with scarce economic resources. ICHPA’s activities include conventions, seminars, lectures and introductory classes in psychoanalysis and classes aimed at increasing knowledge about specific authors and subjects (among them Ferenczi, Winnicott, Lacan).
In 2000 ICHPA applied for membership to the IFPS and was accepted in May 2002 in Oslo, Norway. ICHPA is a member of the Federation of Latin America Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy and Psychoanalysis Associations FLAPPSIP.
The Fifteenth International Psychoanalytic Forum is now being hosted by the Sociedad Chilena de Psicoanálisis ICHPA. The central theme is Identity and Globalization, a New Challenge for Psychoanalysts.
The Instituto de Psicoanalisis Contemporáneo (IPC) initiated its scientific activities in 1989 headed by Julio Villena Aragón, who was trained at the William Alanson White Institute. The IPC started its training program in 1991. Horacio Echegoyen is mentioned as an honorary member of the society.
The Instituto Contemporáneo de Psicoanálisis applied for an affiliated membership in Florence 1994 and was accepted as the first IFPS Study Group.
Villena has participated in multiple lectures in Peru, Chile, Uruguay, and Buenos Aires. He presented clinical illustrations of psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy for psychiatrists in the panels organized by SEMSOAC on behalf of the IFPS to the World Psychiatric Association, in Cancun México 2003. ICP members attended the XIII Belo Horizonte IFPS Forum and some of them presented papers at the XIV Rome IFPS Forum.
Today, IFPS counts as members, six affiliated societies from Mexico, Brazil and Chile; and one Study Group from Argentina.
The Sociedad Psicoanalitica Mexicana AC played a central role in the creation of the International Federation of Psychoanalytic Societies (IFPS).
The aims of using the statements of early psychoanalysis as a basis for proposing and developing the theory of psychoanalysis, has served as inspiration to each of the Latin American societies that gained affiliation to IFPS over the years.
These societies all have in common the precedent of having had an initial contact and final rupture with IPA colleagues or societies, in order to pursue the “free discussion” of psychoanalytic theory and therapy, unconstrained by any single theory or the bureaucratization of its practices.
The IFPS Latin American societies share as well an evolutionary process in which the meeting of the two continents has underscored disparate economic circumstances and, to various degrees, special multicultural and multiethnic compositions. These characteristics shape the everyday life experiences of the analysts and their clinical practices, challenging but also perhaps contributing to their keen social awareness regarding the development of individual and ethnic identities.
Each of the IFPS Latin American Societies has encountered throughout its development conflicts, debates and obstacles that have nevertheless served to strengthen the development and individuation of each group’s identity in the face of current worldwide trends toward a uniform globalization.
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